Blink effect on slow vergence: Neuroreport: For Rapid Communication of Neuroscience Research Vol 13(16) Nov 2002, 2041-2044. Visual skills and intellectual development: A relationship in young children: Journal of the American Optometric Association Vol 56(7) Jul 1985, 550-555. (2003). Target spatial frequency determines the response to conflicting defocus- and convergence-driven accommodative stimuli: Vision Research Vol 46(4) Feb 2006, 475-484. Duchowski, A., Medlin, E., Cournia, N., Murphy, H., Gramopadhye, A., Nair, S., et al. ABSTRACT. Differences in eye movements and reading problems in dyslexic and normal children: Vision Research Vol 34(10) May 1994, 1345-1358. For example fish accommodates through the change of position of the lens, some types of birds accommodate through the increase of curvature of the cornea and protraction of the human eye. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. True Three-Dimensional Displays that Allow Viewers to Dynamically Shift Accommodation, Bringing Objects Displayed at Different Viewing Distances Into and Out of Focus: CyberPsychology & Behavior Vol 7(6) Dec 2004, 610-620. Stimuli for accommodation: Blur, chromatic aberration and size: Vision Research Vol 26(6) 1986, 957-971. Sheliga, B. M., Chen, K. J., Fitzgibbon, E. J., & Miles, F. A. Jimenez, R., Perez, M. A., Garcia, J. EMG responses of the vertical eye muscles to dynamic and static natural vestibular stimulation about different axes in alert rabbits: Brain Research Vol 280(2) Dec 1983, 277-286. Test of the Omnipause Multiply Model: Journal of Neurophysiology Vol 94(4) Oct 2005, 2295-2311. The role of perceived relative position in pointing to objects apparently shifted by depth-contrast: Spatial Vision Vol 16(3-4) 2003, 325-346. Repeatability and variability of near vergence ranges: Journal of Behavioral Optometry Vol 17(2) 2006, 39-46. Modification of Saccades Evoked by Stimulation of Frontal Eye Field during Invisible Target Tracking: Journal of Neuroscience Vol 24(13) Mar 2004, 3260-3267. Nefs, H. T., & Harris, J. M. (2007). Development of binocular vision in early ontogenesis: Psychologische Beitrage Vol 30(1-2) 1988, 65-74. Rotation of Listing's plane by horizontal, vertical and oblique prism-induced vergence: Vision Research Vol 35(23-24) Dec 1995, 3243-3254. Brenner, E. (1993). Haruo Toda, Toyohisa Yoshizawa, Mineo Takagi, Takehiko Bando, The properties of convergence eye movements evoked from the rostral and caudal lateral suprasylvian cortex in the cat, Neuroscience Research, 10.1016/S0168-0102(00)00235-2, 39, 3, (359-367), (2001). Can current models of accommodation and vergence control account for the discrepancies between AC/A measurements made by the fixation disparity and phoria methods? Short-latency ocular following in humans is dependent on absolute (rather than relative) binocular disparity: Vision Research Vol 43(12) Jun 2003, 1387-1396. 2004 Nov;44(24):2825-33. doi: 10.1016/j.visres.2004.06.014. Any NPC value greater than 10 cm is remote, and usually due to high exophoria at near. Efferent factors in natural event perception can be rationalized and verified: A reply to Turvey and Solomon: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance Vol 10(3) Jun 1984, 455-460. Sun shades and eye size in birds: Brain, Behavior and Evolution Vol 56(6) Dec 2000, 340-344. Dark vergence and dark accommodation in human infants: Vision Research Vol 23(12) 1983, 1671-1678. A divergence of the eyes in the vertical direction is physiologically seen during a head tilt, due to vestibular signaling, and when viewing a rotating visual image[10]. (2001). The mechanism of substituted convergence is also controversial. (2003). Initiation of disjunctive smooth pursuit in monkeys: Evidence that Hering's law of equal innervation is not obeyed by the smooth pursuit system: Vision Research Vol 35(23-24) Dec 1995, 3389-3400. Influence of proximal, accommodative and disparity stimuli upon the vergence system: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 13(3) Jul 1993, 239-243. Vergence movements are closely connected to accommodation of the eye. Save Recommend Share . Rambold, H., Neumann, G., Sander, T., & Helmchen, C. (2006). Convergence requires a coordinated stimulation of some extraocular muscles at the same time others are relaxed. Manifest refraction was -0.25 +1.00 x 175 right eye and +1.25+0.50 x 005 left eye, with VA corrected to 20/20 OD and 20/25 OS with near a add power of +2.50. Hainline, L., & Riddell, P. M. (1995). Eye Movement Analyses in Advertisement Psychology and Its Research Trend: Psychological Science (China) Vol 27(2) Mar 2004, 459-461. Static and dynamic properties of vergence-induced reduction of ocular counter-roll in near vision: European Journal of Neuroscience Vol 21(2) Jan 2005, 549-555. (2001). Erkelens, C. J. Kraskin, R. A. Most of the investigations carried out to date have been devoted to the conjugate gaze mechanism, pupillary dilatation as related to the autonomic nervous system, and the pupillary light reflex. Vergence eye-movement responses to whole-body linear acceleration stimuli in man: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 5(3) 1985, 303-311. When looking into the distance, the eyes diverge until parallel, effectively fixating the same point at infinity (or very far away). How to use convergence in a sentence. Sethi, B. D. (1986). Ocular convergence-related neuronal responses in the lateral suprasylvian area of alert cats: Neuroscience Research Vol 15(3) Nov 1992, 229-234. Bando, T., Takagi, M., Toda, H., & Yoshizawa, T. (1992). This phenomenon is called convergence. On examination her entering vision was found to be 20/25- in the right eye and 20/60 in the left eye. (2007). Somani, R. A. Distance perception and vergence: Japanese Psychological Review Vol 43(3) 2000, 335-348. Divergence excess exotropia in a possible case of childhood disintegrative disorder: Journal of Behavioral Optometry Vol 15(3) 2004, 72-76. Version and vergence eye movements in humans: Open-loop dynamics determined by monocular rather than binocular image speed: Vision Research Vol 42(26) Dec 2002, 2853-2867. Collewijn, H., Erkelens, C. J., & Steinman, R. M. (1995). Held, R. (1993). Van Den Berg, A. V., Van Rijn, L. J., & De Faber, J. T. H. N. (1995). London, England: Pion Limited. Jaschinski, W., Jainta, S., & Schurer, M. (2006). Disconjugate adaptation of saccades: Contribution of binocular and monocular mechanisms: Vision Research Vol 39(2) Jan 1999, 341-352. Judge, S. J. The effects of optical vergence, contrast, and luminance on the accommodative response to spatially bandpass filtered targets: Vision Research Vol 27(10) 1987, 1797-1806. Accommodative responses to anisoaccommodative targets: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 18(3) May 1998, 254-262. Hogan, R. E., & Gilmartin, B. Sheliga, B. M., FitzGibbon, E. J., & Miles, F. A. Owens, D. A. Any NPC value greater than 10 cm is remote, and usually due to high exophoria at near. Published in Eye Care. The Use & Misuse of Language: Centering & Identification: Journal of Behavioral Optometry Vol 14(4) Aug 2003, 87-93. Hogan, R. E., & Linfield, P. B. (1992). Fixation on fixation impedes cognition: Reply to Kohly and Ono: Spatial Vision Vol 15(3) 2002, 387-391. Gaze-shift dynamics in subjects with and without symptoms of convergence insufficiency: Influence of monocular preference and the effect of training: Vision Research Vol 39(18) Sep 1999, 3095-3107. Mon-Williams, M., & Tresilian, J. R. (1999). Jainta, S., Hoormann, J., & Jaschinski, W. (2007). The cause of Convergence disorder is unknown and researchers are still working on it. The cyclopean eye and its implications: Vergence state and visual direction: Vision Research Vol 28(8) 1988, 925-930. (2001). Human eye - Human eye - Movements of the eyes: Because only a small portion of the retina, the fovea, is actually employed for distinct vision, it is vitally important that the motor apparatus governing the direction of gaze be extremely precise in its operation, and rapid. (1991). In convergence insufficiency, eye misalignment occurs when focusing at near target. Definition Accommodation is the mechanism by which the eye changes refractive power by altering the shape of lens in order to focus objects at variable distances ... • Convergence-accommodation – Amount of accommodation stimulated or relaxed associated with convergence. A muscle in the same eye that moves the eye in the same direction as the agonist is known as the synergist, while a muscle in the same eye that moves the eye in the opposite direction of the agonist is the antagonist. Vergence control in fixation with minimal disparity information. The properties of convergence eye movements evoked from the rostral and caudal lateral suprasylvian cortex in the cat: Neuroscience Research Vol 39(3) Mar 2001, 359-367. Gap-overlap effects on latencies of saccades, vergence and combined vergence-saccades in humans: Vision Research Vol 35(23-24) Dec 1995, 3373-3388. Organisation of signals involved in binocular perception and vergence control: Vision Research Vol 41(25-26) 2001, 3497-3503. EEG cortical potentials preceding vergence and combined saccade-vergence eye movements: Neuroreport: For Rapid Communication of Neuroscience Research Vol 13(15) Oct 2002, 1893-1897. Development of binocularity and its sexual differentiation. (1999). Cumming, B. G., & Parker, A. J. The variation of torsion with vergence and elevation: Vision Research Vol 39(23) Nov 1999, 3934-3950. [1] This action is mediated by the medial rectus muscle, which is innervated by Cranial nerve III. ... Convergence Insufficiency Neuro-Mechanism in Adults Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry . Vergence eye movements consist of convergence, wherein the coordinated contraction of both medial rectus muscles brings both eyes toward the midline (ie, the nose), and divergence, wherein the coordinated contraction of both lateral rectus muscles brings both eyes toward the periphery. Excess cyclovergence in patients with intermittent exotropia: Vision Research Vol 35(23-24) Dec 1995, 3265-3278. van Ee, R., Banks, M. S., & Backus, B. T. (1999). Subjective vergence error at near during active head rotation: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 5(4) 1985, 411-415. Short-latency disparity vergence in humans: Journal of Neurophysiology Vol 85(3) Mar 2001, 1129-1152. Movements of the eyes (2nd rev. Horizontal vergence involves mainly the medial and lateral rectus. McLin, L. N., Schor, C. M., & Kruger, P. B. Ledgeway, T., & Rogers, B. J. Higashiyama, A. Lam, A. K. C., Tse, P., Choy, E., & Chung, M. (2002). Somani, R. A., Desouza, J. F. X., Tweed, D., & Vilis, T. (1998). The accommodative contribution to binocular vergence eye movements: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 9(4) Oct 1989, 379-384. The interaction of eye movements and retinal signals during the perception of 3-D motion direction: Journal of Vision Vol 6(8) 2006, 777-790. Initial control component in disparity vergence eye movements: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 13(1) Jan 1993, 48-55. Accurate diagnosis and appropriate plans of management can be achieved with careful history taking and clinical examination. (1999). (1981). Abstract. Nitta, T., Akao, T., Kurkin, S., & Fukushima, K. (2008). Directionally selective short-term nonconjugate adaptation of vertical pursuits: Vision Research Vol 33(1) Jan 1993, 65-71. Ritter, M., & Scheiblechner, H. (1984). Yang, D. S., Fitzgibbon, E. J., & Miles, F. A. Shimono, K., Nakamizo, S., & Higashiyama, A. ", http://www.dartmouth.edu/~dons/part_1/chapter_4.html, "FOR PARENTS, STUDENTS, FARSIGHTED CHILDREN: What is Convergence Insufficiency Disorder? As opposed to the 500°/s velocity of saccade movements, vergence movements are far slower, around 25°/s. (1993). Refraction, accommodation, convergence and binocular vision: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health Vol 11(6) Dec 1985, 483-487. Duwaer, A. L., & Van Den Brink, G. (1981). Gogel, W. C. (1982). The influence of repetitive eye movements on vergence performance: Vision Research Vol 40(22) 2000, 3089-3098. Closed-loop and open-loop accommodative vergence eye movements: Vision Research Vol 41(1) Dec 2000, 77-86. (1984). Proximal vergence is sometimes also called voluntary vergence, which however more generally means vergence under voluntary control and is sometimes considered a fifth type of vergence. Disparity vergence double responses processed by internal error: Vision Research Vol 40(3) 2000, 341-347. Depth cues, rather than perceived depth, govern vergence: Experimental Brain Research Vol 184(1) Jan 2008, 61-70. The use of plus/plus accommodative rock in vision therapy: Journal of Behavioral Optometry Vol 17(4) 2006, 97-99. The effects of moderate doses of ethanol on heterophoria and other aspects of binocular vision: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 3(1) 1983, 21-31. (2004). Relations between individual differences in oculomotor resting states and visual inspection performance: Ergonomics Vol 39(1) Jan 1996, 35-40. Light has been exploited for information by organisms through the evolution of photoreceptors and, ultimately, eyes in animals. In this article we review the practical points for clinicians dealing with diplopia. "A new classification of the motor anomalies of the eyes based upon physiological principles, together with their symptoms, diagnosis and treatment. 4. Thus, the gaze must shift swiftly and accurately during the process of reading. Morrison, J. D., & Whiteside, T. C. (1984). C: a. This is helpful in effort to make focus on near objects clearer. Vergence-mediated modulation of the human angular vestibulo-ocular reflex is unaffected by canal plugging: Experimental Brain Research Vol 186(4) Apr 2008, 581-587. Duwaer, A. L. (1982). Response characteristics of midbrain neurons related to vergence eye movements. Neurons in the posterior interposed nucleus of the cerebellum related to vergence and accommodation. Harris, J. M. (2006). Purpose: To describe the design and methodology of the Convergence Insufficiency Neuro-mechanism in Adult Population Study (CINAPS), the first randomized clinical trial (RCT) studying young adults with symptomatic convergence insufficiency (CI) using a combination of traditional clinical tests, objective eye movement recordings, and functional brain activities as outcome measures. Short-term predictive changes in the dynamics of disparity vergence eye movements: Journal of Vision Vol 5(7) 2005, 640-649. ... Accommodation is mediated by an intrinsic mechanism. (2006). Involvement of the cerebellar dorsal vermis in vergence eye movements in monkeys: Cerebral Cortex Vol 18(5) May 2008, 1042-1057. Descartes's blind man revisited: Bimanual triangulation of distance using static hand-held rods: American Journal of Psychology Vol 116(1) Spr 2003, 71-98. Frantz, K. A., Ingelse, J. C., & Lorentz, S. M. (2000). Neuro-ophthalmic signs and symptoms of hysteria: Neurology Vol 32(7) Jul 1982, 757-762. The general approach is demonstrated in fig 1. Dynamic asymmetries in disparity convergence eye movements: Vision Research Vol 38(18) Sep 1998, 2761-2768. (1997). King, W. M., & Zhou, W. (2002). (1987). Suzuki, K. (1986). A. M., & Gielen, C. C. A. M. (2002). (1994). Inhoff, A. W., Connine, C., & Radach, R. (2002). The importance of multiple treatment modalities in a case of divergence excess: Journal of the American Optometric Association Vol 61(6) Jun 1990, 457-462. Speed of visual acuity for vertical eye-movements with a change of accommodation: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 69(3, Pt 1) Dec 1989, 751-754. (1987). ... One metre angle convergence is exerted by each eye when the eyes are directed to object at a distance of 1 m of the meridian line between the two eyes. Yuan, W., & Semmlow, J. L. (2000). (2001). Short delays of vergence eye movements in man during pursuit tasks in light and dark conditions. Convergence insufficiency is the inability to keep the two eyes working together, to converge the eyes and maintain binocular fusion while focusing on a near target. Convergence reduces ocular counterroll (OCR) during static roll-tilt Vision Res. The near point of convergence (NPC) of the eyes can be investigated by placing a fixation object at 30 to 40 cm in the mid-plane of the patient’s head. (1990). The influence of long-term visual near-work on accommodation and vergence: A field study: Journal of Human Ergology Vol 23(1) Jun 1994, 27-39. Jump convergence - the convergence level being increased by rapid jump to a closer point. Eyestrain with reading or close work, blurred vision, blurry eyesight, exophoria, double vision, problems with near vision or seeing up close, headaches, exophoric", "Vestibular Eye Movements Are Heavily Impacted by Visual Motion and Are Sensitive to Changes in Visual Intensities", "Visual and Vestibular Integration Express Summative Eye Movement Responses and Reveal Higher Visual Acceleration Sensitivity than Previously Described", "Optometric Clinical Practice Guideline: Care of the Patient with Accommodative and Vergence Dysfunction", "Why do only some hyperopes become strabismic? Variation of curvature in binocular visual space estimated by the triangle method: Vision Research Vol 21(6) 1981, 925-933. Disparity vergence eye movements exhibit preprogrammed motor control: Vision Research Vol 34(10) May 1994, 1335-1343. Enright, J. T. (1987). Hillis, J. M., & Banks, M. S. (2001). The role of the cyclopean eye in vision: Sometimes inappropriate, always irrelevant: Vision Research Vol 42(9) Apr 2002, 1157-1163. Evoked potentials to a brief diffuse light flash recorded from various brain structures of the cat during horizontal vergence movements of the eyes: Sensory Systems Vol 6(2) Apr-Jun 1992, 118-121. Okada, Y., Ukai, K., Wolffsohn, J. S., Gilmartin, B., lijima, A., & Bando, T. (2006). Fast disconjugate adaptations of saccades: Dependency on stimulus characteristics. Brautaset, R. L., & Jennings, J. Saida, S., Ono, H., & Mapp, A. P. (2000). Voluntary convergence is normally accompanied by accommodation and miosis (constriction of the pupil); often however, with extended practice, individuals can learn to dissociate accommodation and vergence.[5]. Induced esophoric shifts in eye convergence and illusory distance in reduced and structured viewing conditions: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance Vol 9(2) Apr 1983, 270-277. Masson, G. S., Yang, D. S., & Miles, F. A. Vergence movements in comitant strabismus: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 71(3, Pt 2) Dec 1990, 1259-1264. Measures and mechanism of different theories. New York, NY: New York Academy of Sciences. Gogel, W. C. (1983). A simple eye test or screening with 20/20 eye visual aid is not sufficient for the recognition of Convergence Disorder or Convergence Insufficiency (and several other visual situations). (1996). Convergence definition is - the act of converging and especially moving toward union or uniformity; especially : coordinated movement of the two eyes so that the image of a single point is formed on corresponding retinal areas. Dickinson, C. M. (1986). Jiang, B.-c., & Woessner, W. M. (1996). Effects of prediction on timing and dynamics of vergence eye movements: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 20(4) Jul 2000, 298-305. Popple, A. V., Smallman, H. S., & Findlay, J. M. (1998). Convergence of boundary and body information in the visual processing of aspect ratio: Vision Research Vol 46(20) Sep 2006, 3451-3461. Eye movements and neural remapping during fusion of misaligned random-dot stereograms: Journal of the Optical Society of America Vol 73(12) Dec 1983, 1665-1673. A., Minor, L. B., & Carey, J. P. (2008). Convergence is a disconjugate movement in which both eyes rotate inward so that the lines of sight intersect in front of the eyes. Suryakumar, R., Meyers, J. P., Irving, E. L., & Bobier, W. R. (2007). This problem is most commonly found in children. Cipolli, C., Bolzani, R., Corazza, R., Gualdi, G., & et al. Instability of ocular torsion during fixation: Cyclovergence is more stable than cycloversion: Vision Research Vol 34(8) Apr 1994, 1077-1087. Aslin, R. N. (1993). Eye evolution is a classic case of homoplasy, traditionally used as an example of convergent evolution. Iwasaki, T., Akiya, S., Inoue, T., & Noro, K. (1996). Judging an object's velocity when its distance changes due to ego-motion: Vision Research Vol 33(4) Mar 1993, 487-504. New York, NY: New York Academy of Sciences. (1987). Ciuffreda, M. A., Ciuffreda, K. J., & Wang, B. Logvinenko, A. D., & Steinman, R. M. (2002). Paradoxical retinal motions during head movements: Apparent motion without equivalent apparent displacement: Perception & Psychophysics Vol 34(5) Nov 1983, 476-481. Vergence eye movements made in response to spatial-frequency-filtered random-dot stereograms: Perception Vol 10(3) 1981, 299-304. (1994). Malinov, I. V., Epelboim, J., Herst, A. N., & Steinman, R. M. (2000). Rambold, H., Kompf, D., & Helmchen, C. (2001). However, various ‘deep’ homologies associated with eye development have led some researchers to recategorize the repeated evolution of eyes in metazoans as parallel evolution (Shubin et al. II. Convergence accommodation: Journal of the Optical Society of America Vol 73(3) Mar 1983, 332-338. Purpose: To describe the design and methodology of the Convergence Insufficiency Neuro-mechanism in Adult Population Study (CINAPS), the first randomized clinical trial (RCT) studying young adults with symptomatic convergence insufficiency (CI) using a combination of traditional clinical tests, objective eye movement recordings, and functional brain activities as outcome measures. Negative feedback control model of proximal convergence and accommodation: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 12(3) Jul 1992, 307-318. Vergence accommodation and monocular closed loop blur accommodation have similar dynamic characteristics: Vision Research Vol 47(3) Feb 2007, 327-337. Hainline, L., & Riddell, P. M. (1996). The nucleus raphe interpositus is associated with fast vergence movements, whereas the nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis is activated during slow vergence movements. Neuronal responses in the right eye and object rivalry determined by stimulus coherence Vision! 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